Joint United Kingdom (UK) Blood Transfusion and Tissue Transplantation Services Professional Advisory Committee. (n.d.). 12.2: Jehovah’s Witnesses and Blood Transfusion. (Accessed 6/20/2018).
The authors list the following substitutes for those who refuse whole blood: albumin solutions, cryoprecipitate, clotting factor concentrates (including fibrinogen concentrate), immunoglobulins, intraoperative cell salvage (ICS), apheresis, hemodialysis, recombinant products (e.g., erythropoiesis stimulating agents and granulocyte colony stimulating factors), and pharmacological agents such as intravenous iron or tranexamic acid.