Adalja, A., Watson, M., Toner, E., et al. (2018). The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens. Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security.
The authors of this report identify traits of global catastrophic biological risk organisms (GCBRs; "biological agents...[that] could lead to sudden, extraordinary, widespread disaster beyond the collective capability of national and international governments and the private sector to control.” Based on a literature review, subject matter expert interviews, and a meeting of experts, they argue that a framework based on biologic and epidemiologic traits provides an open-ended, pathogen-agnostic approach to preparedness.