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Topic Collection: Emergency Operations Plans/ Emergency Management Program

There is a sizeable body of evidence that supports planning for hazards, threats, and events that may impact access to, or the delivery of, healthcare services in a community. Each state has different requirements for healthcare organizations to ensure that they are properly planning for emergencies. Healthcare system planners must continuously ensure that their emergency operations plans (EOP) take into account the changing landscape of requirements, regulations, threats, and hazards, and compliment local emergency operations plans. Furthermore, complying with standards and following key principals of emergency management programs (EMP) will help healthcare entities be better prepared to respond to and recover from disasters, as well as work cohesively and effectively with emergency management partners.

The resources in this Topic Collection highlight select standards, guidance, regulation, accreditation programs, and tools that can help healthcare emergency preparedness professionals create new, or bolster the foundation of, existing programs and plans. Due to the interdependencies between, and reliance upon, strong EOPs within EMPs, resources for both are provided in this Topic Collection. Resources are listed in separate sub-categories as appropriate.

ASPR TRACIE has comprehensively updated more than 30 Topic Collections that focus on specific categories (e.g., incident management, hazard vulnerability assessment, access and functional needs) and specific locations (e.g., long-term care facilities and dialysis centers). ASPR TRACIE is in the process of completing additional Topic Collections (e.g., exercise and evaluation, healthcare coalitions, information sharing); please check back periodically for updates.

Each resource in this Topic Collection is placed into one or more of the following categories (click on the category name to be taken directly to that set of resources). Resources marked with an asterisk (*) appear in more than one category.

Topic Collection (PDF - 357.4 KB)

Must Reads (EMP)
Must Reads (EOP)
Education and Training (EMP)
Education and Training (EOP)
Evaluation
Event-Specific Lessons Learned
Guidance/Guidelines
Plans, Tools, and Templates (EMP)
Plans, Tools, and Templates (EOP)
Program Development
Standards and Regulations
Agencies and Organizations

Must Reads (EMP)

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). Public Health Emergency Preparedness Archive Tools and Resources.

This list of tools includes many items useful for healthcare emergency management including pediatrics and surge capacity sections.
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American College of Emergency Physicians. (n.d.). Hospital Disaster Preparedness Self-Assessment Tool. (Accessed 4/29/2016.)

This detailed checklist assessment can help hospital staff review their emergency management programs.
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California Hospital Association. (2011). Emergency Management Principles and Practices for Healthcare Systems.

These free online trainings include five units that describe key principles in healthcare emergency management. Units include: Emergency Management Program; Incident Command System, Multiagency Coordination System, and the Application of Strategic NIMS Principles; Healthcare System Emergency Response and Recovery; and Emergency Management System Evaluation and Organizational Learning for Healthcare Systems.
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Charney, R., Rebmann, T., Esguerra C., et al. (2013). Public Perception of Hospital Responsibilities to Those Presenting Without Medical Injury or Illness during a Disaster. (Abstract only.) Journal of Emergency Medicine. 45(4):578-84.

This article addresses a sampling of expectations of the public regarding hospital services during disasters. Expectations may outstrip hospital plans and abilities to provide nonmedical assistance.
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Florida Department of Health. (2011). Recommended Disaster Core Competencies for Healthcare Personnel. California Hospital Association.

These core competencies list the disaster preparedness and response knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by relevant types of hospital personnel given the current state of the art of CBRNE hazards and healthcare system vulnerabilities. Applying these competencies will assist hospitals in the development, implementation, coordination, and evaluation of disaster preparedness and response training programs.
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National Fire Protection Association. (2013). NFPA 1600: Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. (Requires free registration.)

This document is a national standard for emergency management/business continuity programs.
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Schultz, C., Koenig, K., Whiteside, M., et al. (2012). Development of National Standardized All-Hazard Disaster Core Competencies for Acute Care Physicians, Nurses, and EMS Professionals. (Abstract only.) Annals of Emergency Medicine, 59(3):196-208.

The authors identify a set of core competencies and performance objectives based on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by disaster medical professionals to ensure they can treat disaster survivors.
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Spieler, S. Singer, M., and Cummings, L. (2008). Emergency Preparedness in Public Hospitals. National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems.

This report covers an exhaustive survey of public hospital preparedness conducted in the 2006-2007 timeframe in response to Hurricane Katrina and hurricanes in Florida. The study looks at the role of public hospitals during an emergency and identifies emergency-related content and activities at member hospitals.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). National Health Security Implementation Plan.

This federal strategy document outlines the efforts to tie healthcare emergency management programs further into whole community efforts.
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VanVactor, J. (2012). Strategic Health Care Logistics Planning in Emergency Management. Disaster Prevention and Management. 21(3): 299-309.

The authors explain how logistics are related to healthcare disaster preparedness and emergency readiness. They emphasize the importance of a sound logistics platform when it comes to healthcare organization disaster preparedness.
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World Health Organization. (2011). Hospital Emergency Response Checklist.

This tool is structured according to nine key components, each with a list of priority actions to support hospital managers and emergency planners in achieving: (1) continuity of essential services; (2) well-coordinated implementation of hospital operations at every level; (3) clear and accurate internal and external communication; (4) swift adaptation to increased demands; (5) the effective use of scarce resources; and (6) a safe environment for health-care workers.
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Must Reads (EOP)

California Association of Health Facilities. (2012). California Association of Health Facilities (CAHF) Disaster Planning Guide.

This guide was developed to assist long-term care providers to enhance their existing emergency operations plans and procedures. It includes self-assessment tools, checklists, templates, and other resources that can be found across multiple tabs. The information contained in this guide was developed in consideration of the core concepts and guiding principles of the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The Nursing Home Incident Command System (NHICS), a derivative of the Incident Command System, is promoted throughout this guide.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Emergency Preparedness and Response: Preparation & Planning. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website provides links to planning resources for healthcare facilities and specific types of emergencies.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Planning Resources by Setting. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This website includes links to resources that can help healthcare and hospital systems staff plan for and respond to public health emergencies.
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Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Emergency Preparedness Checklist.

This checklist can be utilized by healthcare emergency planners to help aid in the development of emergency plans.
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Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101: Version 2.0.

FEMA’s CPG 101 provides guidelines on developing whole community emergency operations plans (EOPs) and includes best practices and suggestions for plan development. This quintessential guidance document can be leveraged by healthcare emergency planners as they create, update, or revise planning documents.
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National Fire Protection Association. (2015). NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code.

This standard establishes fire, explosion, and electrical risk criteria for healthcare services or systems regarding patients, staff, or visitors in healthcare facilities.
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Schultz, C., Koenig, K., Whiteside, M., et al. (2012). Development of National Standardized All-Hazard Disaster Core Competencies for Acute Care Physicians, Nurses, and EMS Professionals. (Abstract only.) Annals of Emergency Medicine, 59(3):196-208.

The authors identify a set of core competencies and performance objectives based on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by disaster medical professionals to ensure they can treat disaster survivors.
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The Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management at the George Washington University. (2010). Emergency Management Principles and Practices for Health Care Systems, 2nd Edition. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

This document can be useful to any agency or organization involved with the delivery of healthcare services. The authors explain emergency management concepts and how they can be applied in the healthcare system including detailed information on emergency operations planning.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Disclosures of Protected Health Information (PHI) in Disasters: A Decision Tool.

This tool explains the various routes of information flow that could apply to emergency preparedness activities, and can help planners determine whether they can disclose protected health information for public health emergency preparedness reasons.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (2012). Healthcare Preparedness Capabilities: National Guidance for Healthcare System Preparedness: January 2012.

This guidance from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response identifies the eight capabilities (aligned with the Public Health Preparedness capabilities) that serve as the basis for healthcare system, coalition, and organization preparedness: Materials in Capability 3—Emergency Operations Coordination— can particularly help with the writing of facility and coalition Emergency Operations Plans.
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University of Toledo Medical Center. (2015). University of Toledo Medical Center Emergency Operations Plan.

This is an emergency operations plan for an academic medical center that may be referenced and adapted for use by other facilities.
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USA Center for Rural Public Health Preparedness, Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health. (2007). Partnering to Achieve Rural Emergency Preparedness: A Workbook for Healthcare Providers in Rural Communities. Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota.

This workbook was created to assist providers in rural communities with developing emergency operations plans. It includes best practices and lessons learned primarily gathered from rural Texas community members in counties without hospitals.
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Education and Training (EMP)

California Hospital Association. (2011). Emergency Management Principles and Practices for Healthcare Systems.

These free online trainings include five units that describe key principles in healthcare emergency management. Units include: Emergency Management Program; Incident Command System, Multiagency Coordination System, and the Application of Strategic NIMS Principles; Healthcare System Emergency Response and Recovery; and Emergency Management System Evaluation and Organizational Learning for Healthcare Systems.
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Center for Domestic Preparedness. (n.d.). Framework for Healthcare Emergency Management. (Accessed 5/24/2016.)

This four-day course provides healthcare personnel basic information on healthcare emergency management. The course covers topics such as: s including: integration of government agencies and stakeholders; disaster preparedness planning; and emergency management issues for healthcare.
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Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. (2011). Efficacy of Disaster Exercises to Augment Hospital Staff Education in Disaster Preparedness.

This is a detailed best evidence statement for combining clinical training with disaster exercises for increasing healthcare worker knowledge and confidence regarding disaster response.
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Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2012). IS-910.A: Emergency Management Preparedness Fundamentals.

Participants in this three hour course will learn basic preparedness concepts and strategies for improving community preparedness.
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* Florida Department of Health. (2011). Recommended Disaster Core Competencies for Healthcare Personnel. California Hospital Association.

These core competencies list the disaster preparedness and response knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by relevant types of hospital personnel given the current state of the art of CBRNE hazards and healthcare system vulnerabilities. Applying these competencies will assist hospitals in the development, implementation, coordination, and evaluation of disaster preparedness and response training programs.
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George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management. (n.d.). Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies, Curriculum, and Certification Recommendations. (Accessed 5/24/2016.)

The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management has supported this on-line Emergency Management Academy for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) since 2004. This webpage includes links to multiple products developed for use by the VHA and other healthcare organizations seeking to improve or expand their emergency management program.
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Schultz, C., Koenig, K., Whiteside, M., et al. (2012). Development of National Standardized All-Hazard Disaster Core Competencies for Acute Care Physicians, Nurses, and EMS Professionals. (Abstract only.) Annals of Emergency Medicine, 59(3):196-208.

The authors identify a set of core competencies and performance objectives based on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by disaster medical professionals to ensure they can treat disaster survivors.
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Education and Training (EOP)

Cleveland, K., Sharpe, A., and Wible, J.R. (2014). Utilizing Government Resources in a Disaster. South Central Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center.

The authors of this three-hour awareness level course share lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina and provide an overview of the state's role and federal role in both planning and response activities; discuss the Stafford Act, National Response Plan, and Concept of Operations; and describe assets available to assist with emergency healthcare needs.
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Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2013). IS-235.C: Emergency Planning.

This five hour-long course covers the basics of the emergency planning process and is geared towards “all individuals involved in crisis and emergency management decision making.”
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Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2013). IS-808: Emergency Support Function (ESF) #8 Public Health and Medical Services.

As part of the National Response Framework, Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) are primary mechanisms at the operational level used to organize and provide assistance. This course provides an introduction to ESF #8 - Public Health and Medical Services.
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Evaluation

ACH Media. (2006). Prepare for Emergency Management Committee Meeting as Part of Joint Commission Survey. ED Management, 18(2):1-3.

This article covers the process of accreditation surveys for larger hospitals, including: emergency management committee meeting, disaster tracer, plan review, and incident command center review.
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Adini, B., Verbeek, L., Trapp, S. et al. (2014). Continued Vigilance Development of an Online Evaluation Tool for Assessing Preparedness of Medical Facilities for Biological Events. Frontiers in Public Health. 2: 35.

The authors examined bilateral German-Israeli collaboration aimed at developing an evaluation tool for assessing preparedness of medical facilities for biological events.
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American College of Emergency Physicians. (n.d.). Hospital Disaster Preparedness Self-Assessment Tool. (Accessed 4/29/2016.)

This detailed checklist assessment can help hospital staff review their emergency management programs.
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Boyd, A., Chambers, N., French, S., et al. (2014). Emergency Planning and Management in Health Care: Priority Research Topics. Health Systems. 3(2):83-92.

This article discusses research priorities for determining the most critical and successful pieces of hospital emergency management programs in the U.K.
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Cagliuso, N. and Lazar, E. (2007). Are We Ready and How Do We Know? The Urgent Need for Performance Measures in Hospital Emergency Management.

This presentation discusses the lack of healthcare emergency management performance measures to evaluate the success of increasing regulation and accreditation efforts. It also discusses possible metrics to use in emergency management.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Hospital All-Hazards Self-Assessment (HAH).

This interactive tool is designed to help assess and identify potential gaps in a facility's all-hazards emergency plan. The tool is designed for hospital preparedness staff, including planners, administrators, and others.
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Davies, S. and Chin, D. (2010). Challenges and Approaches to Measuring Hospital Emergency Preparedness.

This presentation covers all of the various emergency management evaluation tools for healthcare entities, surveys determining the most important metrics, and steps forward for developing a more standardized evaluation system in the U.S.
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Kaji, A. and Lewis, R. (2008). Assessment of the Reliability of the Johns Hopkins/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Disaster Drill Evaluation Tool. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 52(3):204 -210.

This article characterizes the internal and interrater reliability of a hospital disaster drill performance evaluation tool developed by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center, under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
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Lynch, T. and Cox, P. (2006). Reverse Quality Management: Developing Evidence-based Best Practices in Health Emergency Management. (Abstract only.) Quality Management in Health Care. 15(2): 104-115.

This article is a review of best practices and governmental accountability in health emergency management based on the British Columbia Ministry of Health Framework for Core Functions in Public Health. The fieldwork was conducted in the fall of 2005 between hurricane Katrina and the South Asia earthquake.
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Event-Specific Lessons Learned

Duchene, M. (2011). Emergency Management in Action: Surviving a Flood. (Abstract only.) Home Healthcare Nurse, 29(6): 383-387.

The author reviews the home healthcare nursing response to southeast Connecticut flooding in early 2010.
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Fuady, A. Pakasi, T., and Mansyur, M. (2011). Primary Health Centre Disaster Preparedness After the Earthquake in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia. BMC Research Notes. (4): 81.

The authors assessed the preparedness levels of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Padang Pariaman, Sumatra after the 2009 earthquake. PHCs were heavily relied upon due to limited numbers of health facilities in the region.
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O'Sullivan, T., Dow, D., Turner, M. et al. (2008). Disaster and Emergency Management: Canadian Nurses Perceptions of Preparedness on Hospital Front Lines. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 23(1): s11-18.

The authors share results of an online survey of nurses across Canada regarding personal and hospital preparedness in the wake of SARS. Respondents expressed a low degree of confidence in the Canadian healthcare system’s ability to handle outbreaks and indicated a need for more training and information.
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* Perry, R. and Lindell, M. (2006). Hospital Planning for Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 52(2):116-20.

This article is a result of a literature review that focused on six elements related to weapons of mass destruction incidents that must be addressed in hospital disaster plans: incident command, hospital security, patient surge, decontamination, mental health consequences, and communications.
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Spieler, S. Singer, M., and Cummings, L. (2008). Emergency Preparedness in Public Hospitals. National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems.

This report covers an exhaustive survey of public hospital preparedness conducted in the 2006-2007 timeframe in response to Hurricane Katrina and hurricanes in Florida. The study looks at the role of public hospitals during an emergency and identifies emergency-related content and activities at member hospitals.
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Vesely, R. and Hoppszallern, S. (2014). 2014 Emergency Management Survey. Health Facilities Management.

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Guidance/Guidelines

Association of Healthcare Emergency Preparedness Professionals. (2014). HICS (Hospital Incident Command System) for Small Hospitals.

This resource provides links to guidance and templates that can help smaller hospitals implement the Hospital Incident Command System.
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California Association of Health Facilities. (2012). California Association of Health Facilities (CAHF) Disaster Planning Guide.

This guide was developed to assist long-term care providers to enhance their existing emergency operations plans and procedures. It includes self-assessment tools, checklists, templates, and other resources that can be found across multiple tabs. The information contained in this guide was developed in consideration of the core concepts and guiding principles of the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The Nursing Home Incident Command System (NHICS), a derivative of the Incident Command System, is promoted throughout this guide.
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California Emergency Medical Services Authority. (2014). Hospital Incident Command System.

This website provides access to the Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) 2014 Guidebook, HICS forms and Job Aids.
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Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101: Version 2.0.

FEMA’s CPG 101 provides guidelines on developing whole community emergency operations plans (EOPs) and includes best practices and suggestions for plan development. This quintessential guidance document can be leveraged by healthcare emergency planners as they create, update, or revise planning documents.
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Home Care Association of New York State. (2012). Home Care Emergency Preparedness: A Handbook to Assist Home Care Providers in Emergency Preparedness Planning.

This document contains guidance for home healthcare providers to develop their emergency operations plans.
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Michigan Department of Community Health and the Michigan Office of Public Health Preparedness. (2012). Michigan Hospital Guide to Emergency Management: Linking the Hospital Preparedness Program with Joint Commission Success.

Healthcare emergency planners may find the following document helpful in demonstrating compliance with the Joint Commission Survey for Emergency Management. (Planners should always refer to the Joint Commission directly to ensure they are meeting and incorporating the most current standards in their plans.)
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Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). Home Health Emergency Preparedness: A Handbook to Assist Home Health Care Providers in Emergency Preparedness Planning.

This handbook was created to assist Michigan home care agencies in writing, augmenting, and evaluating their emergency preparedness plans, based on best practices. The document provides guidance for assessing the strength of preparedness plans; an in-depth discussion of plan development; and tools for ongoing evaluation of a plan's effectiveness.
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National Association of Community Health Centers. (2005). Developing and Implementing an Emergency Management Plan for Your Health Center.

This information bulletin describes why health centers need to develop emergency operations plans, and also provides guidance on the planning process and plan content.
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* National Fire Protection Association. (2013). NFPA 1600: Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. (Requires free registration.)

This document is a national standard for emergency management/business continuity programs.
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National Fire Protection Association. (2015). NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code.

This standard establishes fire, explosion, and electrical risk criteria for healthcare services or systems regarding patients, staff, or visitors in healthcare facilities.
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Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2008). Hospitals and Community Emergency Response: What You Need to Know.

This document includes guidance for hospital emergency management programs, with a focus on healthcare worker safety in the context of community emergency response.
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State of Florida. (2013). Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP).

This document provides guidance to assist home health agencies with developing emergency operations plans.
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The Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management at the George Washington University. (2010). Emergency Management Principles and Practices for Health Care Systems, 2nd Edition. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

This document can be useful to any agency or organization involved with the delivery of healthcare services. The authors explain emergency management concepts and how they can be applied in the healthcare system including detailed information on emergency operations planning.
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* The Joint Commission. (2012). Emergency Management in Health Care: An All-Hazards Approach, Second Edition. (Book available for purchase.)

This practical guide contains case examples and current Joint Commission standards. It is meant to help hospitals assess their own needs, better prepare staff to respond to the events most likely to occur, and develop a level of preparedness sufficient to address a range of emergencies.
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* The Joint Commission. (2013). New and Revised Requirements Address Emergency Management Oversight.

The Joint Commission recently approved and revised requirements addressing leadership accountability for hospital-wide emergency management in hospitals and critical access hospitals.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2013). Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid Participating Providers and Suppliers; Proposed Rule.

This proposed rule requires Medicare- and Medicaid-participating providers and suppliers to plan for both natural and human-caused disasters, and coordinate with federal, state, tribal, regional, and local emergency preparedness systems. It also requires that these providers prepare to meet needs of patients, clients, residents, and program participants during disasters and emergency situations.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (2012). HCO Emergency Operations Plan.

This webpage describes the content and format for a healthcare organization emergency operations plan. A nice, concise outline of what a plan is intended for, contains, and its organization (base plan and annexes).
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (2012). Healthcare Preparedness Capabilities: National Guidance for Healthcare System Preparedness: January 2012.

This guidance from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response identifies the eight capabilities (aligned with the Public Health Preparedness capabilities) that serve as the basis for healthcare system, coalition, and organization preparedness: Materials in Capability 3—Emergency Operations Coordination— can particularly help with the writing of facility and coalition Emergency Operations Plans.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (2015). NIMS Implementation for Healthcare Organizations Guidance.

Healthcare organization emergency planners can use the guidance in this document to ensure their plans are in alignment with the National Incident Management System.
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USA Center for Rural Public Health Preparedness, Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health. (2007). Partnering to Achieve Rural Emergency Preparedness: A Workbook for Healthcare Providers in Rural Communities. Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota.

This workbook was created to assist providers in rural communities with developing emergency operations plans. It includes best practices and lessons learned primarily gathered from rural Texas community members in counties without hospitals.
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VanVactor, J. (2012). Strategic Health Care Logistics Planning in Emergency Management. Disaster Prevention and Management. 21(3): 299-309.

The authors explain how logistics are related to healthcare disaster preparedness and emergency readiness. They emphasize the importance of a sound logistics platform when it comes to healthcare organization disaster preparedness.
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Plans, Tools, and Templates (EMP)

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). Public Health Emergency Preparedness Archive Tools and Resources.

This list of tools includes many items useful for healthcare emergency management including pediatrics and surge capacity sections.
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American Healthcare Association. (2008). Hazard Vulnerability Assessments for Healthcare Facilities.

This resource is an overview of hazard vulnerability assessments, a key part of an emergency management program. It also provides links to further resources based on facility type.
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American Hospital Association. (n.d.). Model Hospital Mutual Aid Memorandum of Understanding.

Memoranda of Understanding are considered one of the most common cooperative arrangements for healthcare facilities in disasters. This model template can be used by those facilities looking for a way to address resource sharing with neighboring facilities
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ASPR TRACIE. (2015). ASPR TRACIE Evaluation of Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Tools. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

This comparison chart shows the similarities and differences among five of the primary hazard vulnerability tools used by public health and health care organizations, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Threat and Hazard Identification Risk Assessment (THIRA). Each description includes a summary of its primary use/purpose, as well as information on who developed the tool and how, the format of the tool, the calculations approach, and the benefits and limitations of the tool.
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California Hospital Association. (2011). Hospital Emergency Management Program Checklist.

This tool provides guidance for hospitals regarding the components included in an emergency management program.
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* Florida Department of Health. (2011). Recommended Disaster Core Competencies for Healthcare Personnel. California Hospital Association.

These core competencies list the disaster preparedness and response knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by relevant types of hospital personnel given the current state of the art of CBRNE hazards and healthcare system vulnerabilities. Applying these competencies will assist hospitals in the development, implementation, coordination, and evaluation of disaster preparedness and response training programs.
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Johns Hopkins University. (n.d.). PACER Suite. (Accessed 5/25/2016.)

This toolkit developed by Johns Hopkins University provides electronic models and simulated scenarios to assist hospitals with facility surge, mass casualty, and flu monitoring.
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Moorehouse School of Medicine. (n.d.). Emergency Preparedness Toolkit for Primary Care Providers. (Accessed 3/20/2017.)

This planning guide is meant for medical practices and can help emergency planners practice readiness, planning, and response for emergencies and disasters and assist communities in the aftermath of an event. The toolkit includes fact sheets, templates, trainings, and other resources and links to references.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). National Health Security Implementation Plan.

This federal strategy document outlines the efforts to tie healthcare emergency management programs further into whole community efforts.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Draft Emergency Preparedness Guide.

This draft planning guide is meant to assist state surveyors and healthcare facilities in developing emergency management programs that meet requirements and best practices.
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VHA Center for Engineering & Occupational Safety and Health (CEOSH). (2011). Emergency Management Program Guidebook.

This resource is a guide to the development of a healthcare emergency management program, based on national standards and continuous quality improvement.
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World Health Organization. (2011). Hospital Emergency Response Checklist.

This tool is structured according to nine key components, each with a list of priority actions to support hospital managers and emergency planners in achieving: (1) continuity of essential services; (2) well-coordinated implementation of hospital operations at every level; (3) clear and accurate internal and external communication; (4) swift adaptation to increased demands; (5) the effective use of scarce resources; and (6) a safe environment for health-care workers.
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Plans, Tools, and Templates (EOP)

Carr, M., Hammon, R., Glenn, J., et al. (2010). Emergency Preparedness Packet for Home Health Agencies. National Association for Home Care and Hospice.

This document contains templates and tools for the development of an all-hazards emergency preparedness plan to be used by home care and hospice providers.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Emergency Preparedness and Response: Preparation & Planning. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website provides links to planning resources for healthcare facilities and specific types of emergencies.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Planning Resources by Setting. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This website includes links to resources that can help healthcare and hospital systems staff plan for and respond to public health emergencies.
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Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Emergency Preparedness Checklist.

This checklist can be utilized by healthcare emergency planners to help aid in the development of emergency plans.
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Federal Emergency Management Agency, Incident Management Systems Integration Division. (2009). Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms: A Capability Assurance Job Aid.

Emergency planners can use the information contained in this guide to become more familiar with the various acronyms and terms used in the emergency management field.
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Kansas Department of Health and Environment. (2008). Emergency Operations Plan.

This document is a template for a hospital Emergency Operations Plan with departmental sections as well as incident-specific annexes. Facility personnel will likely need to add operational detail to this outline.
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Kansas Department of Health and Environment. (2013). Emergency Management Plan for Kansas Chronic Dialysis Facilities.

This is an emergency management plan template for chronic dialysis facilities in Kansas that may be adapted for other facilities.
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Kidney Community Emergency Response Coalition. (2007). Dialysis Facility Disaster Plan Template.

This facility-specific emergency operations planning template can be customized by dialysis facility staff.
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Kidney Community Emergency Response Coalition. (2011). Disaster Preparedness: A Guide for Chronic Dialysis Facilities. Second Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

This emergency operations plan manual includes templates that can be tailored to the needs of dialysis and end stage renal disease facilities.
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Leading Age, Kentucky. (n.d.). Kentucky All Hazards Long Term Care Planning & Resource Manual. (Accessed 3/23/2017.)

This plan template may be referenced and customized by long-term care facility staff responsible for creating and maintaining their own emergency operations plan.
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Lee County, Florida, Emergency Management. (2014). CEMP Criteria for Ambulatory Surgery Centers.

This checklist contains the required elements for a comprehensive emergency management plan, as well as guidance on the plan format, for ambulatory surgery centers in Florida. It may be used as a reference by other facilities to help develop their plans.
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Minnesota Department of Health. (2013). Minnesota Long-Term Care Preparedness Toolkit.

This toolkit contains sample templates, forms and suggested resources to develop and/or enhance facility emergency preparedness plans for long-term care facilities. It may be referenced and customized, as appropriate.
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Mississippi State Department of Health. (n.d.). Mississippi State Department of Health-Facilities Preparedness. (Accessed 3/23/2017.)

This webpage links to emergency operations plan templates for: home health; hospice; hospitals; long-term care; and personal home care.
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Palm Beach County, Florida. (2014). Cross-Reference for Comprehensive Emergency Plan Ambulatory Surgical Centers.

This checklist was designed to help ambulatory surgical centers confirm that they have all required elements in their emergency operations plans to receive certification by their local emergency management agency. It may be used as a reference by other facilities to help develop their plans.
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* Perry, R. and Lindell, M. (2006). Hospital Planning for Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 52(2):116-20.

This article is a result of a literature review that focused on six elements related to weapons of mass destruction incidents that must be addressed in hospital disaster plans: incident command, hospital security, patient surge, decontamination, mental health consequences, and communications.
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Santa Clara County Public Health Department. (2007). Emergency Preparedness and Planning Toolkit for Long-Term Care Providers.

This toolkit was created to guide long-term care facilities with enhancing or developing facility-specific emergency operations plans.
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South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. (2013). Emergency Operations Plan Development Guide and Template for Extended Care Facilities.

This template was developed to support emergency operations planning for any licensed care facility in South Carolina other than a hospital which provides nursing or assisted living care to persons who are aged or have disabilities. It may be referenced and customized by facilities, as appropriate.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Disclosures of Protected Health Information (PHI) in Disasters: A Decision Tool.

This tool explains the various routes of information flow that could apply to emergency preparedness activities, and can help planners determine whether they can disclose protected health information for public health emergency preparedness reasons.
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U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (n.d.). Emergency Operations Plan Template. (Accessed 5/24/2016.)

This template is part of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Emergency Management Guidebook, and describes a general strategy for how the operating units in a health care facility will coordinate during emergencies. It identifies various “key activities” (tasks common to emergency response) under the functional areas of the Incident Command System.
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University of Toledo Medical Center. (2015). University of Toledo Medical Center Emergency Operations Plan.

This is an emergency operations plan for an academic medical center that may be referenced and adapted for use by other facilities.
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Vermont Agency of Human Services, Department of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. (2010). Emergency Preparedness Planning for Nursing Homes and Residential Care Settings in Vermont.

This manual contains worksheets that long-term care facilities may use to inform the development of their facility-specific emergency operations plans.
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World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. (2011). Hospital Emergency Response Checklist: An All-Hazards Tool for Hospital Administrators and Emergency Managers.

Healthcare emergency response planners may use the checklists found in this document to inform the development of their Emergency Operations Plans.
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Program Development

Braun, B., Wineman, N., Finn, N. et al. (2006). Integrating Hospitals into Community Emergency Preparedness Planning. Annals of Internal Medicine. 144 (11): 799-811.

The investigators developed and administered a nationwide survey questionnaire to assess the existence and character of hospital-community services linkages that facilitated the response to local emergencies. Most responding hospitals conducted community drills; analyzed threat vulnerability; and planned for additional supplies, equipment, and decontamination facilities. Other linkages were less widespread.
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Charney, R., Rebmann, T., Esguerra C., et al. (2013). Public Perception of Hospital Responsibilities to Those Presenting Without Medical Injury or Illness during a Disaster. (Abstract only.) Journal of Emergency Medicine. 45(4):578-84.

This article addresses a sampling of expectations of the public regarding hospital services during disasters. Expectations may outstrip hospital plans and abilities to provide nonmedical assistance.
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Lynch, T. and Cox, P. (2006). Reverse Quality Management: Developing Evidence-based Best Practices in Health Emergency Management. (Abstract only.)

This article is a review of best practices and governmental accountability in health emergency management based on the British Columbia Ministry of Health Framework for Core Functions in Public Health. The fieldwork was conducted in the fall of 2005 between hurricane Katrina and the South Asia earthquake.
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* National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine. (2014). The Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Preparedness Resources and Programs.

This workshop summary considers how the implementation of the Affordable Care Act will impact preparedness within all aspects of the healthcare system.
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Pole, T., Marcozzi, D., and Hunt, R. (2013). Interrupting My Shift: Disaster Preparedness and Response. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1:1-5.

This article provides an introduction and overview of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Hospital Preparedness Program. It describes the two key principals of the program: (1) the development of healthcare coalitions, and (2) the description of immediate bed availability. By focusing on capacity planning at the level of the population, the program seeks to ensure that the emergency care system will provide high-quality care in day-to-day operations, as well as in times of system strain.
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* The Joint Commission. (2012). Emergency Management in Health Care: An All-Hazards Approach, Second Edition. (Book available for purchase.)

This practical guide contains case examples and current Joint Commission standards. It is meant to help hospitals assess their own needs, better prepare staff to respond to the events most likely to occur, and develop a level of preparedness sufficient to address a range of emergencies.
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The Joint Commission. (2016). Emergency Management Resources.

This resource portal offers a changing array of best practices stories in all facets of healthcare emergency management.
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Standards and Regulations

Emergency Management Accreditation Program. (2013). The 2013 Emergency Management Standard.

This document is geared towards state and local agencies and lists the 64 standards the Emergency Management Accreditation Program uses to evaluate programs.
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* National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine. (2014). The Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Preparedness Resources and Programs.

This workshop summary considers how the implementation of the Affordable Care Act will impact preparedness within all aspects of the healthcare system.
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National Association of County and City Health Officials. (2016). Project Public Health Ready.

This training and recognition program measures local health department capacity and ability to plan for, respond to, and recover from public health emergencies. The resources on this webpage focus on standards for local preparedness planning and include links to crosswalk documents that highlight how this program aligns with other related national programs.
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* National Fire Protection Association. (2013). NFPA 1600: Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. (Requires free registration.)

This document is a national standard for emergency management/business continuity programs.
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The Centers for Law and the Public Health. (2007). The Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act.

This full text reading of the Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act highlights how volunteer health practitioners can be employed during disaster response.
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* The Joint Commission. (2012). Emergency Management in Health Care: An All-Hazards Approach, Second Edition. (Book available for purchase.)

This practical guide contains case examples and current Joint Commission standards. It is meant to help hospitals assess their own needs, better prepare staff to respond to the events most likely to occur, and develop a level of preparedness sufficient to address a range of emergencies.
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* The Joint Commission. (2013). New and Revised Requirements Address Emergency Management Oversight.

The Joint Commission recently approved and revised requirements addressing leadership accountability for hospital-wide emergency management in hospitals and critical access hospitals.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Regulations and Guidance. (Accessed 5/25/2016.)

This website includes links to regulations and guidance for 16 types of healthcare providers (e.g., ambulance services, hospice, hospitals, and rural health clinics).
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Declared Public Health Emergencies - All Hazards Health Standards and Quality Issues.

This detailed Q&A document covers changes to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rules during federally declared public health emergencies. It includes sections on laboratories, home health, and critical access hospitals.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2013). Emergency Preparedness Standards for Medicare and Medicaid Participating Providers and Suppliers.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services proposed this rule to establish consistent emergency preparedness requirements for health care providers participating in Medicare and Medicaid.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (2012). Healthcare Preparedness Capabilities: National Guidance for Healthcare System Preparedness.

This guidance from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) identifies the eight capabilities (aligned with the Public Health Preparedness capabilities) that serve as the basis for healthcare system, coalition, and organization preparedness: Healthcare System Preparedness; Healthcare System Recovery; Emergency Operations Coordination; Fatality Management; Information Sharing; Medical Surge; Responder Safety and Health; and Volunteer Management.
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Agencies and Organizations

Note: The agencies and organizations listed in this section have a page, program, or specific research dedicated to this topic area.



National Association of Community Health Centers. National Association of Community Health Centers.

The Joint Commission. Emergency Management Resources.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Office of Emergency Management.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. National Incident Management System (NIMS).

This ASPR TRACIE Topic Collection was comprehensively reviewed in 2016 by the following subject matter experts (listed in alphabetical order): Eric Alberts, BS, FPEM, CHS-V, CDP-1, CHPP, CHEP, SEM, CFRP, FABCHS, Manager, Emergency Preparedness, Orlando Health, Inc. (Hospital System); Marc Barbiere, MPH, CEM, VPEM, Fairfax County Health Department, Office of Emergency Preparedness; Amanda Bogard, M.A., Branch Manager for Disaster Preparedness, Barren River District Health Department; James Bolen, MS, Planning & Operations Manager, Butler County (Ohio) Emergency Management Agency; Pete Brewster, Office of Emergency Management, Veterans Health Administration; Julie Bulson, MPA, BSN, RN, Director, Emergency Preparedness, Spectrum Health; John Hick, MD, HHS ASPR and Hennepin County Medical Center; and Brad Learn, Regional Healthcare Preparedness Coordinator, Kentucky Department for Public Health.