Zoraster, R.M., Amara, R., and Fruhwirth, K. (2011). Transportation Resource Requirements for Hospital Evacuation. (Abstract only.) American Journal of Disaster Medicine. 6(3):173-86.
The authors of this study conducted a survey on 62 hospitals in Los Angeles County to assess occupancy and patient transportation needs, and to determine the most efficient deployment of limited transportation resources in the event of a hospital evacuation. This survey demonstrated that approximately 20% of hospital inpatients could be discharged home within a few hours; about 40% of hospital inpatients could be transported via vans, buses, or private cars; and the remaining 40% would need ambulance transportation for evacuation. Additionally, the survey provided information about the distribution of emergency department and intensive care unit patients and the resources they would require during a hospital evacuation.