Grange, J.T., and Corbett, S.W. (2002). Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel. (Abstract only.) Prehospital Emergency Care. 6(2): 186-190.
An analysis of more than 4,000 calls in one month showed that some sort of violence occurred in close to 9% of encounters, half of which was directed at prehospital care providers. The authors stress the need for training, protective gear, and protocols for dealing with violent situations.