Hughes, H.E., Morbey, R., Hughes, T.C., et al. (2014). Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to Investigate the Impact of Extreme Cold Weather Events. (Free registration required.) Public Health. 128(7):628-35.
The authors looked at syndromic surveillance data from England for the 2010-11 and 2011-12 winters to characterize cold weather-related Emergency Department visits. The authors found that the strongest fit with temperature was cold-related fractures in females, and strongest fit for snowfall was cold-related fractures in both sexes.