Feldman, M., Lukins, J., Verbeek, R., et al. (2009). Use of Treat-and-Release Medical Directives for Paramedics at a Mass Gathering. (Abstract only.) Prehospital Emergency Care. 9(2).
The authors examined records from a large single-day summer concert; more than 450,000 attended and 1,870 presented for medical attention. Of the patients treated and released by paramedics, none were found to require subsequent ambulance transport, leading the authors to conclude that treat-and-release medical directives helped divert patients from requiring care at actual facilities.