Spaite, D.W., Criss, E.A., Valenzuela, T.D., et al. (1988). A New Model for Providing Prehospital Medical Care in Large Stadiums. (Abstract only.) Annals of Emergency Medicine. 17(8):825-828.
The authors studied the medical incident patterns occurring during events that took place in a major college facility and combined this with previously reported information from four other large stadiums. Using this data, they emphasize the need for rapid availability of CPR-trained personnel, AEDs, and availability of advanced life support care within five minutes at major venues including the adjacent parking areas.