Jenkins, P., Richardson, C., Norton, E., et al. (2015). Trauma Surge Index: Advancing the Measurement of Trauma Surges and Their Influence on Mortality. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 221(3): 729-738.
The authors developed the Trauma Surge Index and used it with an established definition of mass casualty events to examine recent hospital surges. They found that patients admitted during high-surge period had higher mortality than those admitted during low-surge periods.