Abir, M., Choi, H., Cook, C., et al. (2012). Effect of a Mass Casualty Incident: Clinical Outcomes and Hospital Charges for Casualty Patients Versus Concurrent Inpatients. Academic Emergency Medicine. 19(3):280-6.
The authors conducted a retrospective study of administrative hospital claims in a state that experienced a mass casualty incident involving more than 200 casualties. They found that--when adjusted for severity of illness--both casualty and non-casualty patients had significantly longer lengths of stay and higher charges than traditional patients during non-surge periods.