Gates, J., Arabian, S., Biddinger, P., et al.. (2014). The Initial Response to the Boston Marathon Bombing: Lessons Learned to Prepare for the Next Disaster. (Abstract only.) Annals of Surgery. 260(6):960-6.
The authors provide an overview of the medical response to the Boston Marathon bombing, and list the factors that contributed to positive outcomes. They note that 10% of patients required immediate transfusion of packed red blood cells in the emergency department.