King, D., Larentzakis, A., Ramly, A., et al. (2015). Tourniquet Use at the Boston Marathon Bombing: Lost in Translation. (Abstract only.) Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 78(3):594-9.
Every Boston Level 1 trauma center populated a database regarding specific injuries, extremities affected, prehospital interventions, and the like experienced by victims of the marathon bombings. The authors found that after the event, extremity exsanguination was either left alone or treated with an improvised tourniquet. The authors stress the need to share the military's approach to controlling severe extremity bleeding with "all civilian first responders."