Mills, A., Argon, N., and Ziya, S. (2013). Resource-Based Patient Prioritization in Mass-Casualty Incidents. (Abstract only.) Manufacturing and Service Operations Management. 15(3): 361-377.
The authors created a “fluid model” of patient triage in a mass-casualty incident that incorporates resource limitations and the changes in survival probabilities with respect to time. They tested it using a simulation model and data from emergency medicine literature, and conclude that the policy developed outperforms START in all scenarios considered.