Heinrichs, W., Youngblood, P., Harter, P., et al. (2010). Training Healthcare Personnel for Mass-Casualty Incidents in a Virtual Emergency Department: VED II. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 25(5):424-32.
Twenty-two experienced physicians and nurses practiced caring for patients exposed to either a nerve toxin or a dirty bomb within a virtual emergency department. Confidence to respond to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear/explosive mass casualty incidents increased from 18% pre-training to 86% post-training, and 59% of respondents felt that this was due to the virtual learning platform.