Hatchett, R., Mecher, C., and Lipsitch, M. (2007). Public Health Interventions and Epidemic Intensity During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104(18):7582-7587.
The authors examined 19 categories of public health responses in 17 cities during the first 16 weeks of the 1918 influenza pandemic to determine their effectiveness. They found that early interventions were most effective in lowering peak death rates and that early closures of schools, churches, and theatres were associated with lower peak excess death rates.