Houlihan, C., McGowan, C., Dicks, S., et al. (2017). Ebola Exposure, Illness Experience, and Ebola Antibody Prevalence in International Responders to the West African Ebola Epidemic 2014-2016: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLOS Medicine. 14(5):e1002300.
The authors conducted an online survey and antibody testing of oral fluid samples from 268 international volunteers who returned to the United Kingdom and Ireland from West Africa after working during the Ebola outbreak. Samples from two individuals were reactive in initial testing, but follow-up plasma testing was negative, suggesting that asymptomatic infection in returning health workers is rare. Sixteen percent had potential exposures, but none reported receiving post-exposure prophylaxis or being medically evacuated. Of the 21% who reported febrile or diarrheal illness while in West Africa or within one month of return, only 30% were tested for Ebola virus disease. The authors suggest that review and standardization is needed of protocols for the management of possible exposure and illness.