Spinella, P. (2008). Warm Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion for Severe Hemorrhage: U.S. Military and Potential Civilian Applications. (Abstract only.) Critical Care Medicine. 36(7 Suppl):S340-5.
The authors examined data from 6,000 units of warm, fresh blood transfused between 2003 and 2007 in Afghanistan and Iraq to patients with life-threatening injuries. They wrote, “Preliminary results in approximately 500 patients with massive transfusion indicate that the amount of fresh warm whole blood transfused is independently associated with improved 48-hr and 30-day survival and the amount of stored red blood cells is independently associated with decreased 48-hr and 30-day survival for patients with traumatic injuries that require massive transfusion. Risks of warm fresh whole blood transfusion include the transmission of infectious agents and the potential for microchimerism.”