Lennquist Montán, K., Riddez, L., Lennquist, S. et al. (2017). Assessment of Hospital Surge Capacity Using the MACSIM Simulation System: A Pilot Study. (Abstract only.) European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 43(4): 525–539.
The authors tested a manual simulation system to assess surge capacity in a hospital using data from a real world response. They concluded that the model is valid, and that surge capacity should be determined by multiple, interacting hospital functions, which could each be limiting factors at different points in response.