Gildea, J.R., and Etengoff, S. (2005). Vertical Evacuation Simulation of Critically Ill Patients in a Hospital. (Abstract only.) Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 20(4):243-8.
This study addresses the vertical evacuation of 12 simulated critically ill patients from the fourth floor of a newly constructed and vacant critical care unit by local fire fighters, on-staff nursing, residents, and ancillary staff, all under the direction of the hospital Emergency Management Committee. Several teams, dressed in full turnout gear, were timed and had their vital signs assessed prior to ascending to the fourth floor to retrieve a patient and upon each subsequent decent. This drill reflected an impressive level of preparedness by participants both physically and organizationally.