Silver, J., Simons, A., and Craun, S. (2018). A Study of the Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters in the United States Between 2000 and 2013. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
This study highlights these commonalities in shooter pre-attack behavior: planning, access to firearms, stressors, mental health, concerning behaviors, primary grievances, targeting specific people, suicide ideation, and concerning communications. The authors emphasize the importance of collaborative community engagement in preventing future incidents.