Merkel, T., Perera, P., Kelly, V., et al. (2010). Development of a Highly Efficacious Vaccinia-Based Dual Vaccine Against Smallpox and Anthrax, Two Important Bioterror Entities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107(42):18092-18096.
The authors integrated the cytokine IL-15 and the PA gene of B. anthracis into the Wyeth strain of vaccina virus derived from the licensed smallpox vaccine to create a dual vaccine effective against both smallpox and anthrax. Studies in rabbits and mice demonstrated superior immunogenicity and efficacy of Wyeth/IL-15/PA compared to existing licensed smallpox and anthrax vaccines.