TariVerdi, M., Miller-Hooks, E., and Kirsch, T. (2018). Strategies for Improved Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Incidents. (Free registration required.) Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 19:1-13.
The authors used a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate staff, resources, and space as would be found in an urban hospital, to test surge capacity and capability for different mass casualty incidents under varying conditions. They found that “an acceptable service level could be achieved by implementing only 2 to 3 of the 9 studied enhancement strategies.”